Papaya

Introduction | Climatic Requirement | Soil Requirement | Varieties | Cropping System
Field Preparation and Sowing | Nutrient Management | Water and Irrigation | Weed Management
Disease Management | Harvesting | Post Harvesting | Miscellaneous
 
Papaya

Scientific name : Carica papaya
Family: Caricaceae
Centre of origin: Tropical America

Introduction:
Papaya also called papaw or pawpaw, is a quick growing typically single-stemmed, short lived, large, perennial herb, branching may occur with age or if the apical growing point is damaged and can bear fruits for more than 20 years. It is one of the most popular and a commercial fruit of India. It was introduced in India via Malacca in the 16th Century.

It is grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is mainly grown in India, Australia, Hawaii, Sri Lanka, Malya, Florida, Texas, California, South Africa and Kenya. In India it is grown extensively in the states including Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, UP, Gujarat, Punjab, West Bengal, MP, Karnataka and other parts.

In Sikkim, its importance as a fruit crop has recently been realized and being grown in the foot hills of the state below 900 metres elevation. The State Department of Agriculture produces seedlings at Namli garden and Majitar farm in East District and Kaijeley farm in West and distribute to the farmers every year in large scale for the rapid development and growth, of this fruit crop. Although Sikkim receives very high rainfall, which has discouraged the development of this fruit crop, yet there are some pockets in the states such as south district, lower elevation of West Districts, and East district with lesser rainfall wherein papaya can be successfully cultivated as a commercial fruit crop. It is a highly paying fruit crop with a very high yield potential.

Botany:
Papaya plant is small evergreen, short-lived picturesque, straight growing. The stem is hollow and soft wooded. It is usually unbranched while young but at later stage upright shoots are developed on its terminal growth due to some obstruction. The leaves are palm like with long stalked.

Flowers are panicles. The fruit is fleshy berry. The shape of fruit from pistillate flowers is ovoid-oblong to nearly spherical and from hermaphrodite flower it is pyriform, cylindrical or grooved. The rind of papaya fruit is smooth; colour is green but twining yellowish or orange when ripe. Flesh is generally reddish orange; sometimes it is yellowish in colour. Central cavity is 5 angled. Seeds are many in number depending on climatic conditions, varieties, affectivity in pollination etc.

The seeds are spherical in shape, black or grey in colour, wrinkled enclosed in gelatinous sarcotesta formed from the outer integument. About 20 seeds weigh one gram.

Uses:
  1. Ripe fruits are delicious and liked by most. The fruits are beneficial in piles, dyspepsia of liver, spleen and digestive disorders.
  2. Ripe fruits are used in preparation of Jam, Jelly, nectar, squash, ice-cream flavouring crystallized fruits and are canned in syrup.
  3. The immature fruits are also used as vegetable.
  4. The seeds have medicinal values.
  5. Young leaves are also used as vegetable in Java.
  6. The latex obtained from half to three-fourth mature fruits, is used for preparation of ‘papain’. The following uses of papain are suggested:
a. Tenderization in meat preparation
b. Manufacture of chewing gum and cosmetics, dental pastes.
c. Preparation for drugs
d. Degumming natural silk and rayon to give shrink resistance to wool.
e. It is used in extracting oil from lever of ‘Tuna Fish’
f. For cleaning bear in brewing industry.
g. It is used in finding out the intestinal cancer and in correcting diphtheria.
h. It is also used to cure ring-worm and round-worm skin lesions and ulcer, eczema, and kidney disorders.

   7. Carpaine obtained from papaya, is utilized as a diuretic and a heat stimulant

Composition and food value of Papaya fruits:

Moisture 89.6% Vitamin A 2020IU/100gm
Protein 0.5% Vitamin B2 0.04mg/100gm
Fat 0.1% Vitamin C 40 mg/100gm
Carbohydrate 9.5% Nicotinic Acid 0.2 mg/100gm
Ca 0.01% Riboflavin 0.25mg/100gm
Phosphorus 0.01% Calorific value 40 per/100gm




Introduction | Climatic Requirement | Soil Requirement | Varieties | Cropping System
Field Preparation and Sowing | Nutrient Management | Water and Irrigation | Weed Management
Disease Management | Harvesting | Post Harvesting | Miscellaneous